Programs of Gene Music Concerts

Basic rules
(1) DNA sequence: base (GCTA) = tone (DEGA) and transpositions.
(2) Amino acid sequence: (RKH) (DE) (NQST) (GPAC) (YWF) (MLVI)= (#D1,F1,G1)(#A1,C2)(D2,F2,G2,A2)(C3,D3,E3,G3)(A3,B3,D4)(E4,#F4,A4,B4).

Volume 1 In Exploration
Volume 2 In Polyphony
Volume 3 SImilarity and Chaos
Volume 4 Eighteen Nonets on the Vanity of Life

Program (Volume 1, In Exploration)

1. Code Table Song (2 Cycles).
In the first cycle, codons (Alto11) are followed by amino acids (Timpani, Harpsi, WoodBase, Mallet, Vibes, Celest) starting from TTT(Phe) and ending with GGG(Gly) in a cycle of T,C,A,G. In the second cycle, codons (IcePiano) are followed by amino acids (OzHammer).
2. Homeo Box Canon.
Homeo boxes of Drosophila Antp (ExpVox3), Human Hu1 (Bass1), Human Hu2 (bellsusta), and Drosophila ftz (BriteOrgan). [Cel38,667]
3. Duet of AIDS. (MIDI File)
Trans-membrane regions of env genes of HIV1 (Alto11) and HIV2 (SimpleMV1). [Cel40,9; Nat326,665]
4. Responsorium for Major Sperm Protein Promoters.
Promoter sequences of 8 msp genes in C.elegans (VoiceLow, BriteCelst, BowCello, and MonophBass). [JMB199,15]
5. SOS Box Ricercare.
SOS box sequences of recA (SmallPipe), lexA1 (RaspAlto), lexA2 (BoxCello), uvrA (DeepGrd), uvrB (MonophBass), uvrD (Whistling), cle1 (AllThatJazz), and cle2 (BriteCelst). [ARG18,415]
6. Etude of a Gene.
B.subtilis dat gene sequences of DNA (Harp), mRNA (Violins) and protein (Timpani, HarpsiBox, Swissnare, Claves, TubBells, and Maibumba). [NAR17,6531]
7. Etude of an Operon.
B.subtilis ada operon; DNA and mRNA (Mallet2), AdaA and AdaB proteins (6 percussions as above) with annotations (Bonbell1). [NAR18,5473]
8. Four HTH Devolving.
Helix-turn-helix motifs in B.subtilis AdaA (PipeOrgan), E.coli AraC (BrethBass), yeast MATa1 (Itopia), and human Oct-1 (IcePiano). All repeats except the first two 22-beat motifs contain random variations. [NAR18,5473; NAR18,5019]
9. Song of Courtship and Clocks. (MIDI File)
Amino acid sequences of Drosophila period gene product (-Harp2) and Neurospora frq gene product (ClariSolo). [Nat320,185; Nat339,558]
10. Two Zippers.
Leucine zippers and basic regions of mouse c-fos DNA (Feminine1) and ASV junDNA(Alto11). Amino acid sequence of the fos is one beat ahead of the jun (6 percussions as above). [Cel32,1241; PNS84,2848]
11. Chorale of Ras.
Amino acid sequences of ras gene products of human (LadyVoix2), Drosophila (SimpleMV1), yeast (AhChoir), and C. elegans (Violkoto). [Genbank; Cel63,921]
12. Four Classical Switches.
Amino acid sequences of lambda c1 repressor (Seinet), CAP (WoodBass), lac repressor (Harp2), and trp repressor (Pipewave) of E. coli are aligned at helix-turn-helix motifs (annotated with Drums). [Genbank]

Comments: No noise reduction in use; stereo separation employed in some numbers.
Arranged and executed by Nobuo Munakata (Jun'91)
Commercial use prohibited. Therapeutic effects unconfirmed.

Programme (Volume 2, In Polyphony)

1. Codon Table Song. (MIDI File)
Four sampled voices for DNA bases and a six-percussion ensemble (SPE) for amino acids. Each codon is followed by an amino acid starting from TTT(Phe) and ending with GGG(Gly) in order of T, C, A, and G.
2. Gann Fighter's Song. (MIDI File)
p53 tumor suppressor gene and protein sequences. The protein is thought to be one of the guardians against cancer, and found to be mutated or destroyed in many tumor tissues. Some bases changed in human skin cancer cells presumably induced by solar UV radiation are marked with blasts. "Gann" is "cancer" in Japanese.
3. Homeo Box Pastorale.
Homeo box sequences of Lin11 (nematode), Isl-1 (human), and Antp (fruit fly) proteins, which are thought to be involved in morphogenesis and differentiation. The final section features all three together. Played with 3-layered voices and a percussion ensemble (SPE).
4. 127 Random Octets.
Random octet base sequences are played with randomly chosen 16 instruments. This is a remainder to J. Derrida's Cartouches which is a remainder to G. Titus-Carmel's 127 drawings of The Pocket Size Tlingit Coffin. One who strays into the MIDI world recognizes it is made of 127s.
5. Mushroom's Meditation.
Sequences of hydrophobin genes for fruiting body proteins of bracket fungus. Humbly dedicated to J. Cage (1912-1992), a musician and mycologist.
6. Twelve Times High and Low.
Cocaine-sensitive dopamine transporter protein sequence (SPE and Seinet). Tempo is modulated according to the hydrophilicity profile and slows down at 12 hydrophobic segments where the protein goes through membrane layers.
7. Capricious Triple Repeats.
Human androgen receptor gene, cDNA (Novemb) and protein (AfroAs). Expansion of the N-terminal CAG (Gln) repeats causes a rare genetic disease called spinobulbar muscular atrophy.
8. Requiem for Kikko.
Sequences of hemoglobin alpha and beta, proinsulin precursor, and proglucagon precursor proteins of guinea pig. Kikko (1987-1992), a female guinea pig, was the most untiring and sympathetic audience/critic of gene music throughout her life.
9. Polyrhythmic Etudes.
The first half compares protein sequences of single-minded (left, Dreamy) and period (right, Celest) of Drosophila, followed by period (left, Harp2) and frequency of Neurospora (right, Clarin).

Stereo separation employed. No noise-reduction is in use. Most of the pieces were arranged with Vision (Opcode) and Max (Opcode) programs on Macintosh computers, and were played by SY99 (Yamaha) tuned to just intonation in C.
Arranged and executed by Nobuo Munakata (Sep'93).

Program (Volume 3, Similarity and Chaos)

1 Long DNA Song.
Human EGF precursor protein cDNA (4871 nt) played with exponential accelerando.
2 Restriction Enzyme Catalog.
Recognition sequences of 82 restriction enzymes ordered alphabetically.
3 Codon Table Song.
Each codon is followed by a corresponding amino acid in the order of TCAG.
4 Two Ways To Go.
DNA and protein sequences of divergent regulon for the adaptive response to DNA alkylation in B. subtilis. Going right is ada operon carrying overlapping adaA and adaB genes, and going left is alkA gene.
5 Feminizing Hermaphrodite.
DNA and protein sequences of fem-3 sex-determination gene of C. elegans. The gene is made of 6 exons and 5 introns.
6 In the Saddle.
Sequences of TATA-binding protein (left from human, right from Arabidopsis), annotated with three instruments for secondary structures; loop (drum), beta sheet (cello), and alpha helix (panflute).
7 Five Modes of p53.
Original sequence of p53 protein is followed by the transpositions to Dorian, Lydian, Mixolydian, and Melodic Minor modes.
8 Trio of Mutators.
Sequences of E. coli MutS (left, pizzikoto), C. elegans (middle, celesta), and human (right, dreamy) homologs; tempo and loudness modulated according to the similarity profile.
9 From Linnet to Rascal.
Protein sequences of C. elegans genes involved in the signal transduction for vulval development, and human homologs; Lin-3, Let-23, Sem-5, and Let-60 from left, and EGF, EGFR, GRB2, and H-ras from right; tempo and loudness modulated according to the similarity profiles.
10 Chaotic Clocks.
Sequences of frequency (N. crassa, pizzikoto), period (D. melanogaster, mallet), and period-like (mouse, piano) proteins, tempo and loudness modulated according to amino acid compositions.

No noise reduction in use; stereo separation employed.
Arranged and executed by Nobuo Munakata (Jul'94)

Gene Music Vol. 4. Eighteen Nonets on the Vanity of Life

Overview: A collection of eighteen human proteins related to various diseases and sufferings. Throughout, a solo instrument is accompanied by an eight-instrument ensemble according to fixed pitch assignments (MLVI, YWF, C, GA, P, NQST, DE, RKH). Tempo, velocity (loudness) and pan are algorithmically modulated; the tempo increases by the encounter of acidic amino acids (DE), and decreases by basic ones (KH); the velocity increases in the regions of low sequence complexity; the direction of pan changes by the encounter of a W residue. The choice of genes and sounds were vaguely affected by James Joyce's Ulysses and Giacinto Scelsi's sonority, or frankly by hypes of newspapers and weekly magazines. "Another Gene Hunting War Ends!", the winners being often about fifty authors and the losers uncountable. This is dedicated to all the genes and organisms that survived winning and losing of billions years.

1. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 Precursor (FGFR3). (806 aa)
This belongs to the fibroblast growth factor receptor family and the immunoglobulin superfamily. The defect is the cause of the autosomal dominant disease achondroplasia, the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism.
2. p53. (393 aa)
One of tumor suppressors mutated in many tumors involved in various aspects of cellular regulation such as the check point control of cell cycle progression and apoptosis.
3. Mismatch Repair Protein (MSH2). (933 aa)
It recognizes mismatches in DNA to maintain the integrity of genetic information, and the defect is associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.
4. Wilms' Tumor Protein (WT1). (449 aa)
It has four zinc fingers and is involved in transcriptional regulation. The defect is related to Denys-Drash syndrome characterized by a nephropathy and genital abnormalities.
5. Sex-Determining Region of Y Protein (SRY). (204 aa)(MIDI FIle)
A testis-determining protein from the sex-determining region of Y chromosome with a HMG type DNA-binding motif.
6. TUP1-Like Enhancer. (766 aa)
A putative transcriptional regulator isolated from the chromosomal region deleted in DiGeorge syndrome, Shprintzen syndrome and familial congenital heart disease.
7. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR). (1480 aa)
This belongs to the ATP-binding transport protein family and the MDR superfamily. The defect is the cause of cystic fibrosis characterized by exocrine pancreatic failure leading to malabsorption, growth retardation, and recurrent pulmonary infections.
8. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Mitochondrial Precursor (ALDH-E2). (517 aa)
It labors in the second step in ethanol utilization, and an impaired variant common among orientals is the cause of acute alcohol intoxication.
9. Second Seven Transmembrane Gene Product (STM-2). (448 aa)
A candidate gene for the chromosome 1 familial Alzheimer's disease.
10. RNA-binding Protein FUS/TLS. (526 aa)
A probable RNA-binding protein rearranged in leukemia and myxoid liposarcoma.
11. Brain 4 Protein. (361 aa)
This protein with a POU domain expressed in developing inner ear is associated with deafness with fixation of the stapes.
12. Myosin Heavy Chain, Smooth Muscle Isoform (SMMHC). (1086 aa)
This is a component of smooth muscle myosin with a rodlike tail made of cycles of a 28-residue repeat pattern composed of 4 heptapeptides, characteristics for alpha-helical coiled coil. A pericentric inversion produces a fusion product associated with myeloid leukemia.
13. Paired Box Protein PAX-6. (422 aa)
A transcription factor with important functions in eye and nasal development. The defect is the cause of type II aniridia and Peter's anomaly.
14. High-Mobility Group Phosphoprotein Isoform I-C (HMGIC). (109 aa)
This is involved in chromosomal rearrangements of uterine leiomyoma.
15. Dystrophin. (3685 aa)
It may play a role in anchoring the cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane and is defective in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy.
16. Ataxia Telangiectasia Gene Product (ATM). (3056 aa)
This gene has been identified as mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients.
17. Fibrillin 1 Precursor (FBN1). (2871 aa)
A structural component of connective tissue microfibrils, and the defect is the cause of Marfan syndrome.
18. Breast and Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Gene Product (BRCA1). (1863 aa) (MIDI FIle)
This gene confers susceptibility to early onset familial breast and ovarian cancers.

Credits: Software programs employed; MAX (Opcode) and VISION (Opcode). Hardwares; SY99 (Yamaha), VL1-m (Yamaha), and SE-50 (Boss).
Arranged and executed by Nobuo Munakata (February 1996).

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